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Project Management KPIs

Everything That You Need to Know & Start Using Project Management KPIs

project management KPIs

 

Key performance indicator (KPI) is a measurable value that indicate how well an individual, department or organisation or an entity is achieving its important business objectives or goals. KPIs can be of different types, applicable to different goals such as strategic goals or operational goals. There are different KPIs for different industries and even they differ from one company to another or one department to another.

 

 

Tracking key performance indicators (KPIs) is very important for a defined period of a project for a an individual, department or organisation. Tracking KPI numbers tells you whether you are making progress or not by how much. Without KPI you wouldn’t know whether you are progressing towards your goals or not. Knowing KPIs numbers, you can correct the course and align your efforts to meet the goal.

44 percent of project managers do not use project management software; interestingly though top consulting firm PWC has found out that using PM software increases performance [4].

High-performing organisations successfully complete 89% of their projects, while low performers complete only 36% [5]. 

77% of companies use project management software, and 87% of high-performing companies use project management software [6].

Did you notice the key phrase in above statistics? It is the performing organisation (high performer, low performer). But how does one decide whether your organisation is high performer or low performer? High performer in what? 

There are performance indicators which helps business owners, leaders understand how their business is performing. If your business is driven by delivering projects, obviously how each project is performing will decide how organisation will perform. Let’s look at the what research says about key performance indicators in project management.

 

Research Findings About Project Management KPIs 

The research[2] has conclusively found that Management of project management KPIs, especially the ones applicable to project managers are the most significant individual variable contributing towards the success of any project. It also means, if an organisation has metrics to evaluate performance of project managers, it can significantly impact the project success. 

The results from another research[3] suggest metrics linked to customer’s needs and requirements, have the strongest linkage with the overall success of projects. It further highlights significance of critical success factors (CSFs), and how the key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to identify problem areas in surveyed projects.

 

Best Project Management Tool - People, Process Maturity

It is the organisation’s project management maturity that enables greater success with implementation and use of project management KPIs. There are three aspects project leadership should be aware of 

1. Processes
2. People and
3. Tool

Missing KPI or Incorrect KPIs == Suboptimal Result | Even Failure

Today the single biggest challenge a typical business faces is, there is too much of data floating around and management is struggling to make sense of this data for sustainable business growth. ‘Getting the real value from all data reports, dashboard and analytical output’ is still a guess work. That’s why there has to be correctly defined KPIs for management to be able to track trends, performance, results, etc. And defining right KPIs requires you to follow a well-guided process of designing and tracking key performance indicators (KPIs).

Firstly, organisations struggle to gather data in a reliable, consistent manner; many are manually generating reports and presentations. Generating reports is not really an impossible task, but data inconsistency, incorrect data input/aggregation pose challenges. For a moment, let’s assume that error-free data is collected; next challenge is to make sense of all of these data points, how to interpret data, related-data, how to put things in right perspective and thirdly, based on available, reported information how to make right decisions that will have meaningful impact or drive intended result.

We are trying to set a context for having right KPIs for business, department, team or individual. One need to design right KPIs that help decision makers

  1. Know/understand if things are going right or wrong
  2. Quantify – how much good or bad it is
  3. Gives opportunity to understand how/why of project/portfolio status
  4. Help project/portfolio managers take corrective actions in highlighted areas

Essentially, right KPIs gives management the quick and clear picture of how its business, department, teams or initiatives are doing and enable them to act on right aspects or pain areas.

There are certain thumb rule to identify and define KPIs. Let’s look at those.

  1. KPI should be clearly linked to important goals which are crucial for the organisation/department
  2. Tracking KPI should clearly answer whether strategic initiatives for individual/department/organisation is on right track or not
  3. KPIs should be transparent to those individual, department; those should help them learn and improve
  4. Selected KPI should be controllable – meaning, it should not have elements which are beyond control of individual or department or organisation; e.g. just to make the point – rainfall, economy growth rate, etc
  5. KPI should be such that it should make people accountable for the result – which should be typically quantitative in nature
  6. For each KPI, organisation should have target level or number so that the performance of an individual or department can be tracked against it.

So there are goals and there are KPIs linked to specific goals. One should not confuse achieving KPIs vs meeting goals. Goals are met as a result of achieving set of desired KPIs. If you are scoring high in KPIs but goals are nowhere near or if goals are falling apart then, you are getting your KPIs wrong. It calls for how to design KPIs, especially, right KPIs or in today’s language, we call them as SMART KPIs. It starts from having S.M.A.R.T. goals and boils down to defining S.M.A.R.T. KPIs.

Where S.M.A.R.T. is

S – Specific

M – Measurable

A – Achievable

R – Relevant

T – Time bound

KRA is Key Result Area. People get confused between KPI and KRA. Though KPI and KRAs can be linked but they are different. To know the difference let’s try to understand each one with examples and a table below.

 

KPI KRA
Stands for? Key Performance Indicator Key Result Area
Meaning? KPI is a mechanism to define and track how well/bad a given business unit (or whole) is performing KRA is aspect or area of the business that needs special focus to attain certain business goals
Tracking Quantitative Qualitative
Usage KPIs are important to tracks specific points or range of success/failure towards defined goals/objectives of a business KRAs are important for the business/department to focus on those aspects of business or functions which are strategically important and needs more attention
Examples Percentage of projects successfully delivered in a given portfolio or % of sales lead converted using LinkedIn advertisement Online sales lead, offline sales channels, recruitment, customer onboarding and after-sales engagement

Let’s look at KPI used in general business practices from marketing, sales, finance, human resources perspectives.

Marketing KPIs

  1. Monthly footfall/website visitor
  2. Traffic from TV commercials, radio, print media
  3. New Vs Returning customers
  4. RoI on marketing spend
  5. Brand awareness
  6. Funnel conversion rate

Sales KPIs

  1. Number of customers added
  2. Revenue growth (year on year, QoQ, MoM)
  3. Revenue per sales person
  4. Conversion ration of qualified leads
  5. Sales forecast
 
 

Finance KPIs

  1. Profit margin growth
  2. EBIDTA growth
  3. Return on capital employed (ROCE)
  4. Return on assets (ROA)
  5. Return on equity (ROE)
  6. Economic value add

Human Resources KPIs

  1. New hire rate
  2. Employee attrition ration/ churn rate
  3. Employee satisfaction index
  4. Human Capital Value Added (HCVA)
  5. Average employee tenure
 
Now let’s find out how to use project management KPIs in practice.

We know the basics of project management KPIs, its importance, examples, different types of KPIs applicable to different roles, etc. Having said all of these, it is all the more important to understand what does it take to implement and make use of project management KPIs in practice – how to identify useful KPIs, implementing project management KPIs in an organisation, challenges in tracking KPIs, how managers use tracked KPI information to influence people/process, etc. Let’s look at these aspects.

Executive Dashboard in Project Portfolio Management Software ZilicusPM

SMART KPIs or Effective KPIs

Business owners and leaders define SMART (abbreviation for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time Bound) goals and SMART objectives for their businesses. SMART goals do not automatically translate into SMART KPIs. It is usually, project management office (PMO) who needs to put in serious thoughts and hard work to define SMART KPIs to manage & deliver projects better. I come across the debate whether organisation should have SMART KPIs or effective KPIs, in my opinion, they are not really different. If one defines KPIs to be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, and Relevant and time bound (which is what SMART practice is all about); it covers almost everything a project KPIs need to be effective. The only debatable point is ‘time-bound’. After all, project is a temporary endeavour so it has to have time-boundaries. Once KPIs are defined, communicated and tracked by managers, their effectiveness is also decided how stakeholders embrace it,  how data is reported, collected, presented and how actions are taken based on presented KPI information.

 

Let’s look at following steps to create the most effective project management KPIs

 

  • It all begins with the company leadership, what it wants the business to become, its vision, the goals to make vision reality, the strategy to achieve goals
  • The highest level business strategy to boil down to business objectives, in turn plan to achieve those
  • The business goals, objectives not only aim to achieve financial results, they are also about customer satisfaction, operational excellence, employee happiness index, competitive position and so on.
  • Each one of these goals should translate into KPIs for all initiatives which organisation undertakes to achieve goals, usually it is PMO works on defining consistent project KPIs across company
  • Typically one goal will have multiple project KPIs linked to it, to track and check the success
  • To decide level of success, for each KPI much have specific target for stakeholders to clearly know it
  • Good-to-great type of managers, not only create set of project management KPIs but they also prepare action plan for the team, illustrating how to achieve the target levels of KPIs
  • To make the process more effective, managers, stakeholders keep tracking KPIs regularly
  • If necessary, managers need to change (add/remove/update) the KPIs, target levels of some KPIs to suit the changing dynamics of the business
  • As you keep tracking KPIs, there should also be recognition, rewards for stakeholders when your business achieves its goals and objectives. It makes the process inclusive and infuse the sense of achievement of greater goods.

 

Irrespective of your company size or type of industry, deciding right KPIs, target levels of those KPIs and effective coaching & tracking around KPIs help all involved stakeholders stay focused, stay on target to achieve business goals.

There are certainly challenges associated with project management KPIs/ metrics. There are different ways to tackle these challenges but let’s first understand these challenges and subsequently see how to overcome these difficulties.

  • If there are no KPIs already in use; organisation is staring at considerable change (training)
  • Existing KPIs are way too simple or set to unrealistically high level to achieve
  • No or lesser compliance for submitting status/progress information
  • Not all stakeholders are not well aware of project management processes
  • Project KPIs are defined but gathering project data is a big issue
  • Data collation & presentation is done separately/ not in real-time
  • As compliance improves, metrics/ KPI numbers may go down, panicking stakeholders
  • Frequent and inconsistent changes to project KPI definition, information collection cause uneasiness among stakeholders
  • When project KPIs are not linked to individual annual/quarterly review, involved stakeholders (team members, project managers) have tendency to ignore or exhibit lower compliance
  • Project managers may have tendency to hide or under-report/over-stretch project status/progress information to be superficially compliant e.g. project manager fear that dependency on receiving information from client can cause delay which is beyond his/her control but will impact the KPI, so s/he will try NOT to set precise milestones or set baseline during planning phase
  • Then there are certain projects, uniquely positioned so much so that organisation’s project KPIs will not be applicable to them. The challenge is still to be able to track them for performance, success and assess the need for corrective actions.
steps to introduce project management KPIs
  • Step 1> Get management’s buy-in for implementing Project KPIs
  • Step 2> Select a team to decide, define Project KPIs  (usually it is the PMO)
  • Step 3> Empower Champions of Project KPIs to nurture the culture (typically PMO volunteers)
  • Step 4> PMO to schedule & conduct Project KPI development workshop
  • Step 5> Identify company-wide goals & associated critical success factors
  • Step 6> Design & define top level project portfolio KPIs drill down to project KPIs and then to staff KPIs based on critical success factors and present those in most possible natural, human language
  • Step 7> Set process, techniques to enter, track & measure project KPIs data effortlessly
  • Step 8> Develop reporting and dashboard framework to present/notify KPIs
  • Step 9> Set guideline to interpret project KPIs and potential action plans
  • Step 10> Celebrate staff/teams who achieve/exceeds desired KPIs level
  • Step 11> Improve, refine KPIs & process, techniques to better present KPIs

Once a manager has project KPI dashboard or report in front of him/her, there three possible scenarios:

  1. Project progress is lagging or below desired level of project KPIs  (e.g. schedule is lagging by 20% than planned)
  2. Project progress is at the desired level of project KPIs (e.g. project CPI is 1.10, which is just as what is expected)
  3. Project progress is more/ahead of desired level of project KPIs (e.g. project resource utilisation is 95% which is higher than desired KPI as 85%)

How managers can use project management KPIs

As a manager, you can look at these numbers & following tactics

 

Finding out if underlying numbers of KPIs are reported right or If there is any miscommunication concerning tracking KPIs or (Now, this is where prudent manager’s skill come into play) If team members /leaders need support or clarification or encouragement/pat on the back

 

If your KPIs are defined right, if you are collecting project information correctly, then tracking KPIs is a very useful and effective in driving projects successfully. Why?

  1. There will be mix bag of KPIs and business manager can understand trend or unfold risks early on
  2. KPIs Numbers do not lie, makes difficult for stakeholders to hide behind these numbers
  3. It helps managers better understand the difficulties faced by team
  4. Managers can use apt managerial tactics  (push?/encourage/inspire) to help them to do right things
  5. If something is wrong with the project management processes, managers can correct the course of it (e.g. risk KPIs are not reported consistently, it means project risk management process has certain lacuna: it could be lack of understanding or lack of enforced process.

Essentially, prudent managers use reported project management KPIs information to influence people/process to drive projects for greater success.

Let’s look at KPI in project management context. The KPI in project management context can be look at as Key: Represents the important aspect that if it is achieved, can deliver project successfully or otherwise. Performance: Represents the trend for set of figures or statistics of important project aspects that can be measured, managed/controlled during the lifecycle of a project Indicator: Represents metric of current state or expected state of important aspect of project There are many KPIs for tracking project performance but those are typically club them in following categories
  • Schedule KPIs
  • Budget KPIs
  • Quality KPIs
  • Effectiveness KPIs (Combination of above three)
Let’s list down some of the KPIs applicable in each of these categories

Project Schedule KPIs

  • Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
  • Schedule Variance (SV)
  • Planned Hours vs Actual Hours
  • Planned Duration Vs Actual Duration
  • Achieved Milestones vs Overdue Milestones
  • Overdue Tasks
  • Percentage of Schedule/Tasks Complete
 

Project Financial KPIs

  • Cost Variance (CV)
  • Profit Margin (%)
  • Cost Performance Index (CPI)
  • Planned Value of a Project (PV)
  • Actual Cost of a Project (AC)
 

Project Quality KPIs

  • Number of Incidents Reported
  • Number of Unresolved Incidents
  • Number of Customer Issues
  • Number of Unresolved Customer Issues
 

Project Effectiveness KPIs (combination of above three)

  • Earned Value of a Project(EV)
  • Resource Utilisation
  • Planned Hours vs Actual Hours of a Project
  • Planned Hours vs Billable Hours of a Project
  • Percentage of Used Budget of Allocated Budget
 
  1. Number of Pending Tasks for Me
  2. Number of Completed Tasks Assigned to Me
  3. Number of Upcoming Tasks for Me
  4. My Tasks Scheduled in This Week
  5. My Meetings Scheduled in This Week

Project Issues KPIs for Team Member

  1. Number of Issues Assigned to Me
  2. Number of Active Issues for Me
  3. Number of Issues Reported by Me
  4. Number of Issues Closed on My Name

Project Risk KPIs for Team Member

  1. Number of Risks Reported by Me
  2. Number of Risk Assigned to Me
  3. Number of Catastrophic Impact Risks Assigned to Me
  4. Number of Severe Impact Risks Assigned to Me
  5. Number of Medium Impact Risks Assigned to Me
  6. Number of Low Impact Risks Assigned to Me
  7. Number of Insignificant Impact Risks Assigned to Me

Project Change Request KPIs for Team Members

  1. Number of Change Requests Reported by Me
  2. Number of Change Requests Assigned to Me
  3. Number of Change Requested Closed on My Name

Project Timesheet KPIs

  1. Number of Timesheet Submitted by Me
  2. My Pending Timesheet
  3. Number of Approved Timesheet Submitted by Me
  4. Number of Rejected Timesheet Submitted by Me

Project Expenses KPIs

  1. Expense Submitted by Me
  2. My Approved Expenses
  3. My Rejected Expenses
  4. My Re-Opend Expenses

Miscellaneous KPIs

  1. Number of Ongoing Projects for Me
  2. My Non-Project Activities

High Level Indicators (Project KPIs)

  1. Project Health – Schedule
  2. Project Health – Issues
  3. Project Health – Risk
  4. Project Schedule Planned Vs Actual Progress
  5. Project Budget vs Estimated Cost Vs Actual Cost
  6. Project Resource Utilisation

Projects Status KPIs

  1. Number of Projects in Progress
  2. Number of Cancelled Projects
  3. Number of On-Hold Projects
  4. Number of Completed Projects
  5. Number of Projects in Planning
  6. Total Number of Projects Being Managed
  7. Portfolio-wise Number of Projects

Project Schedule KPIs

  1. Number of Overdue Tasks
  2. Number of Tasks Yet to Start
  3. Number of Tasks In Progress
  4. Number of High Priority Tasks in Progress
  5. Number of High Priority Tasks Overdue
  6. Number of Milestones Achieved
  7. Number of Milestones Pending
  8. Number of Milestones in Future
  9. Number of Completed Tasks
  10. Unassigned Tasks
  11. Earned Value Analysis
  12. Schedule Performance Index (CPI)
  13. Schedule Variance
  14. Project Tasks on Critical Path
  15. Baseline Schedule
  16. Number of Pending Tasks This Week
  17. Number of Pending Tasks Next Week

Project Budget, Cost KPIs

  1. Project Cost Variance
  2. Project Cost Overrun
  3. Project Cost Performance Index (CPI)
  4. Project Billing
  5. Project Margin

 

Project Resources KPIs

  1. Resource-wise percentage utilization in a Project
  2. Resource-wise Load in a Project
  3. Resource Billing in a Project
  4. Resource cost in a Project
  5. Actual Work Hours Spent in a Project
  6. Customer Wise Resource Work Planned Vs Actual Work

Project Issues KPIs

  1. Number of Reported Issues
  2. Number of Unresolved Issues
  3. Number of Unresolved Customer Issues
  4. Number of Resolved Issues
  5. Number of Closed Issues
  6. Number of Issues Per Resources
  7. Number of High Priority Issues
  8. Number of Low Priority Issues
  9. Number of Medium Priority Issues
  10. Number of Issues without Priority
  11. Number of Issues Reported by Customer 

Project Risks KPIs

  1. Risk Heatmap/ Risk Matrics
  2. Number of Risks in Project Risk Register
  3. Number of Un-reviewd Risks
  4. Number of Reviewed Risks
  5. Number of Closed Risks
  6. Number of Risks with Catastrophic Impact
  7. Number of Risks with Severe Impact
  8. Number of Risks with Medium Impact
  9. Number of Risks with Insignificant Impact
  10. Number of High Probability Risks
  11. Number of Low Probability Risks 

Project Change Requests KPIs

  1. Number of Active Change Requests
  2. Number of Change Requests Submitted
  3. Number of Change Requests Reviewed
  4. Number of Change Requests To Be Reviewed
  5. Number of Approved Change Request
  6. Number of Rejected Change Request
  7. Number of High Priority Change Request
  8. Number of Medium Priority Change Request
  9. Number of Low Priority Change Request
  10. Number of Change Requests Assigned to Per Team Member

Portfolio Health KPIs

  1. Portfolio Health
  2. Portfolio Completion Percentage
  3. Portfolio Budget Utilisation
  4. Projects Pending for Approval

Portfolio Financials KPIs

  1. Allocated Budget Across Portfolios
  2. Used Budget Across Portfolios
  3. Percentage of Budget Utilization
  4. Estimated Cost Across Portfolio of Projects
  5. Actual Cost Across Portfolio of Projects
  6. Estimated Cost for a portfolio of projects
  7. Actual Cost for a portfolio of projects

Portfolio Schedule KPIs

  1. Total Number of Milestones
  2. Achieved Milestones
  3. Missed Milestones
  4. Upcoming Milestones

Portfolio Issues KPIs

  1. Total Number of Issues Reported in a Portfolio
  2. Number of Open Issues in a Portfolio
  3. Number of Resolved Issues in a Portfolio
  4. Number of Closed Issues in a Portfolio
  5. Number of High Priority Issues in a Portfolio
  6. Number of Low Priority Issues in a Portfolio
  7. Number of Medium Priority Issues in a Portfolio
  8. Number of Normal Priority Issues in a Portfolio

Portfolio Risks KPIs

  1. Total Number of Risk Reported in a Portfolio
  2. Total Number of Reviewed Risks in a Portfolio
  3. Total Number of Open Risks in a Portfolio
  4. Number of Risk With Catastrophic Impact in a Portfolio
  5. Number of Risk With Major Impact in a Portfolio
  6. Number of Risk With Moderate Impact in a Portfolio
  7. Number of Risk With Minor Impact in a Portfolio
  8. Number of Risk With Insignificant Impact in a Portfolio

Portfolio Change Requests KPIs

  1. Total Number of Change Request Reported in a Portfolio
  2. Total Number of Open Change Request in a Portfolio
  3. Number of High Priority Change Request in a Portfolio
  4. Number of Medium Priority Change Request in a Portfolio
  5. Number of Low Priority Change Request in a Portfolio
  6. Number of Normal Priority Change Request in a Portfolio

Portfolio Earned Value KPIs

  1. Cost Performance Index (CPI)
  2. Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Portfolio Miscellaneous KPIs

  1. Percentage Completion of Individual Project
  2. Percentage Progress Made For a Portfolio
  3. Number of Team Member of Individual Project
  4. Number of Projects Per Portfolio
  5. Project Wise Actual Work Hours Spent by Resources
  6. Customer Wise Resource Work Planned Vs Actual Work
  7. Customer Wise Resource Work Planned Vs Actual Work Per Project

Project Management KPIs for PMO

project management KPIs Dashboard, Reports

So there are two popular ways professionals and business managers track KPIs.

  1. Project KPI Dashboard
  2. Project KPI Reports

Who Uses KPI Dashboard and Reports?

Usually, project KPI dashboard are used by executive management to quickly check and understand current progress, benefits/risks associated with project portfolio.

Project KPI reports are typically used by team members, project managers, PMO team members to better understand trends, knowing precisely what’s going wrong, what needs attention, etc. Reports provide more information than visual dashboard, typically using tables. Now a days, the line between dashboard and reports are blurring and they are even interactive (click-through)

Which Tools Are Popular As Project KPI Dashboard and Report Tools?

Many businesses seems who track project management KPIs use MS Excel or MS Powerpoint to present KPI dashboard and reports. This approach work fine as long as

  • You have not made any mistake in collecting and compiling project data
  • You do not need latest report, if something has changed once report/dashboard is created, you don’t want to update the presentation
  • You are hired primarily for project KPI dashboard/reports and you have ample time just to keep creating such dashboard or reports as compiling & presenting KPI dashboard manually is pretty much intense and laborious exercise.

There could be reasons why these organisations have to use MS Word, MS Excel or MS Powerpoint for tracking and presenting KPIs. But the reasons most likely are attributed to resistance to change, lack of budget, inability to understand loss of productivity or just happy-to-be-here attitude. There can also be ignorance to search & try better tools and to be fair, possibly there isn’t that IDEAL & PERFECT KPI tool which has all the bells and whistles.

So what is the alternative?

You are better off switching to project management software that also offers project KPIs dashboard software allowing you to easily track project portfolio performance at a click, where data is automatically gathered, if team members have missed updating project activities, they are automatically reminded without you having to keep a track.

Agree, you may not get that perfect tool matching your exact requirement but what managers need to understand, there is no perfect tool for everyone in this world. The project KPI tool that is easy to use for team members, project manager, easy to update status/progress gets adopted well. As long as you have project information updated in the system, the system will be able to present it in some way (usually standard reports or dashboard which can be customised further). But at least you will not be looking at data entry errors because of copy paste, data collation, etc. If a given project KPI dashboard and reporting tool does not provide exact visualisation or reports that you require, just ask vendor for such report/dashboard. Yet, you will still have the ability to project information out of the system and present data in your own way (like you do it today through PPT and Excels).

Here are few project management KPIs template that you can use for your project organisation.

[A] Project Portfolio KPIs Template

  1. Portfolios which have budget utilisation less than 70%
  2. Project portfolios having more than 20% pending milestones

[B] Project KPIs Template

  1. Projects where estimated cost is overshooting budget by more than 10%
  2. Projects where actual cost is overshooting estimated cost by more than 15%
  3. Projects where margin is less than 15%
  4. Projects lagging behind schedule by more than 25%
  5. Projects which have resource utilisation less than 75%
  6. Projects which have risks exposure more than 40%
  7. Projects which have risks with impact as Catastrophic
  8. Projects where cost variance is more than 90%
  9. Projects where SPI is less than 0.90
  10. Projects where CPI is less than 1.0
  11. Projects where effort variance is more than 90%

References:

[1]. Design project research Report (https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB9795.pdf)
[2]. Toor S, Ogulana O. Beyond the ‘Iron Triangle’: Stakeholder perception of key performance indicators (KPIs) for large- scale public sector development projects. 2009
[3]. Journal for operational research issue#68, 2017 (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1057/jors.2016.1)
[4]. PWC Global Project Management Report (http://www.pwc.com/en_US/us/public-sector/assets/pwc-global-project-management-report-2012.pdf)
[5]. PMI Pulse Report (http://www.pmi.org/~/media/PDF/Business-Solutions/PMI_Pulse_2014.ashx)
[6]. Enterprise Project Management Survey – InfoWeek (http://reports.informationweek.com/abstract/83/12175/IT-Business-Strategy/research-2014-enterprise-project-management-survey.html)
[7]. PMI Pulse Report (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1057/jors.2016.1)
[8]. Logos of the products referred above belongs to respective companies. Product information presented as available during trial and/or publicly available information
.